The ‘National Calendar of India‘ is the authority common schedule being used in India. It is likewise called Saka schedule. It was received from 22 March 1957 alongside the Gregorian schedule.
The national calendar depends on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a typical year of 365 days.
Interesting Facts About National Calendar Of India
Dates of the national calendar have a perpetual correspondence with dates of the Gregorian schedule. 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March typically and on 21 March in jump year. The months in the primary portion of the year all have 31 days.
- Name: Saka Calender
- Presented in: 79 CE
- Embraced in: 1957
- Starts on: March 22
- Number of days: 365
- Number of months: 12
- Premise of Calender: Luni-sun based.
- Examined by: Gazette of India, All India Radio News Broadcast, Government of India.
National Calendar of a nation is assigned with reverence to the social effect that the schedule or its framework addresses. It quite often is connected to the nation’s set of experiences and helps to remember a specific brilliant period in that.
The national calendar of India depends on the Saka Calendar which has been received as the authority common schedule other than the Gregorian schedule.
National Calendar of India – Saka Calendar
The Saka Era denoted the start of the Shaka Samvat, a noteworthy Hindu schedule which was subsequently presented as ‘Indian National Calendar’ in 1957. The Shaka Era is accepted to was established by King Shalivanhana of Shatavahana administration.
The Saka era comprises of 365 days and a year which is like the construction of the Gregorian Calendar. The principal month of the Saka Samvat is Chaitra which starts on March 22 which compares with March 21 during the jump year.
To think about a year in Saka Calendar allude to the table beneath.
|Saka Samvat||Gregorian Calendar|
|Chhaitra||March 21 – April 20|
|Vaishakha||April 21 – May 21|
|Jyeshtha||May 22 – June 21|
|Ashadha||June 22 – July 22|
|Shravana||July 23 – August 22|
|Bhaadra||August 22 – September 22|
|Ashwin||September 23 – October 22|
|Kartika||October 23 – November 21|
|Agrahayana||November 22 – December 21|
|Pausha||December 22 – January 20|
|Magha||January 21 – February 19|
|Phalguna||February 20 – March 20/21|
Realities about National Calendar of India / Shaka Calendar
- It is a recorded schedule time comparing to Julian year 78.
- It is otherwise called Shalivahana Saka time or Mahasakkarat Era.
- Saka time denotes the recognition of King Shalivahana’s main military victories.
- The first sign of a connection between King Shalivahana and the Saka time was verified by the Kannada work Udbhatakavya by Somaraja.
- The Saka schedule is utilized likewise by the Indonesian Hindus in Bali and Java.
- The Gazette of India utilizes this schedule alongside the Gregorian Calendar.
Foundation of the Calendar
The Saka period is accepted to have been established by King Shalivahana of the Shatavahana administration. The way that the Saka time denotes the celebration of King Shalivahana’s significant military triumphs has been founded on mainstream legends yet scarcely has any authentic certainty. The chronicled agreement is that it started at the 78th year of the Common Era.
Most punctual proof of relationship among Shalivahana and the Saka time was validated by the 1222 CE kannada work Udbhatakavya by Somaraja.
Works like the Muhurta-Martanda proposes that the start of Saka Era is determined from the introduction of Shalivahana, while the Kalpa Pradipa written in 1300 CE recommends that it denotes the triumph of Shalivahana over Vikramaditya.
Construction of the Saka Calendar
The Saka Calendar depends on luni-sunlight based retribution of time. The schedule comprises of 365 days and a year like the ordinary Gregorian schedule.
Chaitra is the principal month of the year starting on March 22 which is the day after the Spring Equinox. During jump years, the beginning day of Chaitra compares with March 21.
Types of Calendar in India
The word Calendar has its starting point from the Roman word Calends or Kalends meaning a method of allotting time into specific periods received with the end goal of common life.
Public Calendar of a nation has a solid relationship with the authentic time of a country and holds a specific brilliant period in that. In India, four sorts of schedules are followed.
- Vikram Samvat
- Saka Samvat
- Hijri schedule
- Gregorian schedule.
The Calendars of India holds a significant piece of the UPSC Syllabus. It is vital to know the fundamental realities about India to break UPSC IAS Exam.
The Vikram Samvat additionally viewed as the Vikrami schedule is a chronicled schedule for the Hindus in India. Vikram Samvat is likewise the authority schedule of Nepal and is named after the lord Vikramaditya.
This schedule came into center after the ninth century with the start of epigraphical work of art. Prior to the ninth century, a similar schedule framework was referred to with different names like Krita and Malava.
A portion of the remarkable highlights of the Vikrami schedule are referenced beneath.
- It imprints the start of the Vikrama period that won in India and Nepal.
- The period is named after King Vikramaditya to check his victory over the Saka rulers.
- It beginnings at 57 B.C. prior to the ninth century with Vikramaditya.
- This is a schedule dependent on the development of the moon and has 354 days in a year.
The Vikram Samvat has a year with every month partitioned into two stages.
- Shukla paksha (15 days) – Starts with the new moon and finishes with a full moon.
- Krishna paksha (15 days) – Starts with a full moon and finishes with the new moon.
- Division of a year in Vikram Samvat.
The first day of the Vikram Samvat schedule is commended after Diwali in Gujarat and Maharashtra. The Vikram Samvat is comparative against to the Gregorian schedule and has been utilized by the Hindus and the Sikhs.
This schedule framework is one of the lunisolar schedules created by antiquated human societies. It utilizes the lunar months and sun powered sidereal years for the division of a year.
A year of Vikram Samvat that compare to the a year of the Gregorian Calendar are referenced in the table beneath.
|Vikram Samvat||Gregorian Calendar|
|Baishakh||April – May|
|Jestha||May – June|
|Ashadh||June – July|
|Shrawan||July – August|
|Bhadra||August – September|
|Ashwin||September – October|
|Kartik||October – November|
|Mangsir||November – December|
|Poush||December – January|
|Magh||January – February|
|Falgun||February – March|
|Chaitra||March – April|